Who can be categorized as an Author according to Copyright Law No. 28 of 2014?

The person or party that can be considered as the Author is the one that is regulated under Articles 31 to 37 of Copyright Law No. 28 of 2014 as follow:

Article 31

Unless proven otherwise, the one to be considered as the Author is the Person whose name:

a. Is stated in the Works;

b. Is stated as the Author of the Works;

c. Is stated in the certificate of Work Recordation; and or

d. Is listed in the general register of Works as the Author.

Article 32

Unless proven otherwise, a Person giving a talk without any written material and no information regarding the Author of the talk is available, is considered as the Author.

Article 33

(1) In the event that Works comprise several individual parts created by 2 (two) Persons or more, the one that will be regarded as the Author is the Person leading and overseeing the completion of the entire Works.

(2) In the event that the Person who leads and oversees the completion of the whole Works as reffered to in section (1) does not exist, the one that will be considered as the Author is the person who puts together the Works without prejudice to respective Copyrights of each part of the Works.

 Article 34

In the event that Works are designed by a person and embodied and executed by other Persons under the direction and supervision of the Person who designs, the one will be regarded as the Author is the Person designing the works.

Article 35

(1) Unless agreed otherwise, the Copyright Holder to Works produced by an Author under employment of civil service institution, the one to be regarded as the Author is the government agency.

(2) In the event that the Works as referred to in section (1) is used commercially, the Author and/or Related Rights holder will receive remuneration in the form of Royalty.

(3) Further provisions regarding the payment of Royalties for commercial use as referred to in section (2) are regulated in a Government Regulation. 

Article 36

Unless agreed otherwise, the Author and the Copyright Holder to Works produced under an employment relation or based on commission are the party producing the Works.

Article 37

Unless proven otherwise, in the event that a legal entity makes Publication, Distribution, or Communication of Works originating from the legal entity, without citing any person as the Author, the one who will be regarded as the Author is the legal entity.

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